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Monier-Williams: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (p. 584)
padma, m. n. (2. or 3. pad?) a lotus (esp. the flower of the lotus-plant Nelumbium speciosum which closes towards evening; often confounded with the water-lily or Nymphaea alba) MBh. Kāv. &c. (ifc. f. ā); the form or figure of a lotus R. MārkP. (a N. given by the Tāntrikas to the 6 divisions of the upper part of the body called Cakras q.v.); a partic. mark or mole on the human body R.; red or coloured marks on the face or trunk of an elephant, L.; a partic. part of a column or pillar Var.; a kind of temple ib.; an army arrayed in the form of a lotus Mn. MBh.; a partic. posture of the body in religious meditation, Vedānt. (cf. padmāsana); a kind of coitus, L.; one of the 9 treasures of Kubera (also personified) R.; one of the 8 treasures connected with the magical art called Padminī MBh. Hariv. &c.; a partic. high number (1000 millions or billions) MBh. R. &c.; a partic. constellation Var.; N. of a partic. cold hell Buddh.; a partic. fragrant substance MBh. (v.l. -maka); the root of Nelumbium speciosum, L.; a species of bdellium, L.; lead, L.; m. a species of plant, L.; an elephant, L.; a species of serpent Suśr.; N. of Rāma (son of Daśa-ratha) Śatr.; of two serpent-demons MBh. R. &c.; of one of the attendants of Skanda MBh.; of a mythical Buddha MWB. 136 n. 1.; (with Jainas) N. of the 9th Cakra-vartin in Bhārata and of one of the 9 white Balas; N. of a king MBh.; of a prince of Kaśmīra (founder of Padma-pura and of a temple; see padma-svāmin) Rājat.; of another man ib.; of a Brāhman Lalit.; of a mythical elephant R. (cf. mahā-padma); of a monkey R.; of a mountain Var.; (ā) f. the lotus-hued one N. of Śrī Mn. MBh. &c. (cf. padma-śrī); a species of plant Suśr. (Clerodendrum siphorantus or Hibiscus mutabilis, L.); cloves, L.; the flower of Carthamus tinctoria, L.; N. of the mother of Muni-suvrata (the 20th Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī), L.; of a female serpent-demon (= the goddess Manasā, wife of the sage Jarat-kāru; cf. padma-priyā), L.; of a daughter of king Bṛhadratha and wife of Kalki Pur.; mfn. lotus-hued, being of the colour of a lotus ShaḍvBr.
Monier-Williams: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (p. 574)
paṅkaja, n. (ifc. f. ā) ”mud-born”, a species of lotus, Nelumbium speciosum (whose flower closes in the evening) MBh. Kāv. &c. (in Kathās. once ā f.); m. N. of Brahmā Cat. (for paṅkaja-ja); mfn. lotus-eyed Jātaka m.; -janman m. ”lotus-born”N. of Brahmā Hariv.; -nayanā f. a lotus-eyed woman Bhām.; -nābha m. ”having a lotus springing from his navel” N. of Vishṇu Ragh. BhP.; -netra mfn. lotus-eyed” (said of Vishṇu) BhP.; -pattra-netra m. having eyes like lotus-leaves MW.; -mālin mfn. wearing a lotus-crown (Vishṇu) BhP.; -lāvam ind. (fr. lū) cutting off like a lotus-flower Bālar.; -vat mfn. furnished with a lotus Nīlak. on MBh.; -jākṣī f. = -ja-nayanā Amar.; -jāṅghri mfn. whose feet are adorned with lotus-flowers (Vishṇu) BhP.; j valī f. N. of a metre Col. (cf. paṅkāvalī); -jāsana-stha mfn. sitting on a lotus-throne (Brahmā) Var.; -jiṅ mfn. furnished with a lotus MBh.; (nī) f. Nelumbium Speciosum (the plant or a group or the flexible stalk of such lotuses), also a lotus-pond (= -nī-saras) Kāv. Pur.
Tamil Lexicon, University of Madras (p. 1588)
centāmarai: 1. Red lotus, Nelumbium rubra
Tamil Lexicon, University of Madras (p. 1837)
tāmarai: 1. Lotus, Nelumbium speciosum; 2. Array of an army in the form of a lotus; 3. A large number; 4. Tiger; 5. Ringworm
Dymock, Warden, Hooper: Pharmacographia Indica (vol. I, pp. 70-72)
Nelumbium speciosum, Nymphaeaceae
Fig. - Egyptian lotus (Eng.), Nâlumbium magnifique (Fr.)
Lotus (Nymphaea nelumbo, Nymphaea alba, other varieties, blue lotus: Nymphaea stellata, cyanea, caerulea, N. rubra (red lotus), N. esculenta (the esculent white water-lily))
This is a classical plant amongst the Hindus and the Egyptians. The world at its creation is likened to a Lotus flower floating on water. Om! mani padme. Om! The pearl of creation is in Lotus. It is emblematic of the heavens, Brahma is supposed to reside on a Lotus flower in a sea of milk, and to sleep six months of the year, and watch the other six months; an allusion to the seasons in which Brahma represents the Sun. Mr. O. C. Dutt, in his Hindu Materia Medica, speaks thus of it: - "These beautiful plants have attracted the attention of the ancient Hindus from a very remote period, and have obtained a place in their religious ceremonies and mythological fables; hence they are described in great detail by Sanskrit writers. The flowers of N. speciosum, called Padma or Kamala, are sacred to Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth and prosperity. The white variety of this plant is called Pundarika, the red Kokanada, and the blue Indivara. The entire plant, including root, stem and flowers, is called Padmini. The torus or reptacle for the seed is called Karmikara, and the honey formed in the flowers Makaranda. The filaments round the base of the receptacle pass by the name of Kinjalka, and the leaf stalk by that of Mrinala." N. speciosum is the -*- of Theophrastus. The Arabians and Persians, under the name of Nilufer, which, they say, is a corruption of an Indian name, and derived from Nila, water, and Phala, fruit, describe the several varieties of Nelumbium and Nymphaea, and do not appear to consider the flowers of the former plant in any way superior to the latter. they direct the white and the blue kinds to be preferred. Both Hindus and Mahometans consider the flowers to be especially cooling and astringent, and consequently prescribe them in a variety of disorders which are supposed to proceed from heated humours, such as sanguineous fluxes from the bowels, &c.; they are given in decoction with liquorice or in the form of a syrup containing half a part of the dried flowers, 1 part sugar, and 5 parts water, dose 2 to 3 drachms. A powder is also used. As an externally cooling application Lotus flowers are made into a paste with sandalwood or emblic myrobalans.
The seeds of N. speciosum (Kamal kakrÄŤ, BÄla-i-kubti or BÄla-i-nabti of Persian writers, i.e. Coptic bean) and of Euryale ferox (MakhÄna) are used as articles of diet. In times of scarcity the roots and scapes (bishi) of N. speciosum are also made use of, but they are bitter and unpalatable. The starch contained in the thick rhizome, separated by rasping and washing, constitutes a sort of arrowroot used by the Chinese, under the name of Gaan-feen. (D.Hanbury.)